2024 México National Survey on the Mental Health of LGBTQ+ Young People

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Introduction

The 2024 México National Survey on the Mental Health of LGBTQ+ Young People is a pioneering initiative led by The Trevor Project in collaboration with academic researchers from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and partner organizations Yaaj Transformando tu Vida A.C. (Yaaj México), Asociación por las Infancias Transgénero A.C. (Infancias Trans).

This effort reveals, for the first time in México, a detailed analysis of the mental health outcomes of LGBTQ+ young people as well as the risk and protective factors associated with their well-being. The data reveal an alarming truth: more than 50% of LGBTQ+ young people in México reported considering suicide in the past year. This painful reality disproportionately affects trans and nonbinary people, with two out of three reporting experiencing these thoughts. Most of those facing these battles are young people between the ages of 13 and 17, a crucial stage of life marked by the search for identity and acceptance.

The mission that drives us is clear: to eradicate suicide among LGBTQ+ young people. However, we recognize that this challenge cannot be addressed in isolation. The results of this research point us toward the need to provide direct support to marginalized youth. Through the data, we know that less than 22% of LGBTQ+ young people reported having access to an affirming home and only 34% felt fully accepted by their family when they came out. With this information, we can identify specific areas where weaving a support network that sustains LGBTQ+ young people on their journey to acceptance and self-love will be key.

We are committed to lighting the way to a future where mental health is no longer a privilege, but a right for all, without exception.

We thank all of the LGBTQ+ young people who bravely shared their experiences, and we are confident that this research will be invaluable to decision makers, policy makers, organizations, and all those charged with the care and well-being of LGBTQ+ young people in México.

The Trevor Project

In Collaboration With

  • Dr. Tania Esmeralda Rocha Sánchez (she/her)

    Dr. Rocha serves as a full-time professor and researcher in the Department of Psychology at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), where she also holds the position of Coordinator of the Gender and Sexuality Studies Research Group. She is a member of the Council to Prevent and Eliminate Discrimination in Mexico City (COPRED), contributing her expertise to the Multidisciplinary Research Network on Discrimination. Furthermore, she is a member of the International Observatory of Conversion Therapies, which is supported by the Canadian Embassy in Mexico. She has worked with various educational and government institutions on better incorporating the perspective of gender within sexual diversity and human rights. She recently received the “José Toro Alfonso” prize for professional development of psychology in the Americas, awarded by the Inter-American Society of Psychology.

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  • Aline Itzel Blanco Vera (they/she)

    Aline is a psychologist in training, feminist, and LGBTI+ activist. She has served as a teacher and workshop leader to high school students, undergraduate students, and public service personnel on topics related to human rights, feminism, sexual diversity, racism, and ableism. Aline has also participated in round table discussions and conferences at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). She currently collaborates as a researcher in the Gender and Sexuality Studies Unit of the UNAM, where she is part of the organizing team of various LGBTI+ self-managed groups and a researcher in topics related to the trans population.

  • Yaaj México

    "Yaaj: Transformando tu vida A.C.” (Yaaj México) is a Mexican civil society organization that works to promote and defend the human rights of the LGBTQ+ community, with a focus on gender and youth. With almost 15 years of experience, Yaaj México has four guiding programs: “LGBT Mexico Youth”, “Diverse Women Yaaj”, “Positive Health” and “Become Stronger." Yaaj is a pioneer in the fight against conversion “therapies” in Mexico. Yaaj has collaborated at a National and International level on research projects within the United Nations System. In 2023, Yaaj was recognized as one of the “50 personalities that transformed Mexico,” reflecting its commitment to inclusion and equality within society.

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  • Infancias Trans

    Infancias Trans, created in 2018, is a non-profit organization that provides free legal and educational support to families with trans and non-binary children and adolescents.

    Visit Website

Key Findings

More than half of LGBTQ+ young people seriously considered suicide in the past year — including 2 in 3 trans and nonbinary young people and nearly half of cisgender young people

1 in 3 LGBTQ+ young people attempted suicide in the past year — including nearly half of trans and nonbinary young people and 1 in 4 cisgender young people

57% of LGBTQ+ young people between the ages 13-17 considered suicide in the past year — compared to 46% of those ages 18-24

Among LGBTQ+ young people who attempted suicide in the past year, 77% reported family as a motivation and 60% reported school as a motivation for the suicide attempt

Less than 22% of LGBTQ+ young people reported having access to an affirming home and only 34% felt fully accepted by their family when they came out or revealed their identity

Having access to affirming spaces, such as a home, is protective against depression, anxiety, and suicide for LGBTQ+ young people

Mental Health & Suicide Risk

LGBTQ+ young people are not inherently prone to suicide risk because of their sexual orientation or gender identity, but rather placed at higher risk because of how they are mistreated and stigmatized in society.

Mental Health & Suicide Risk:

Suicide Risk

More than half of LGBTQ+ young people seriously considered suicide in the past year

including 2 in 3 trans and nonbinary young people and nearly half of cisgender young people

1 in 3 LGBTQ+ young people attempted suicide in the past year

including nearly half of trans and nonbinary young people and 1 in 4 cisgender young people

Rates of seriously considering and attempting suicide among LGBTQ+ young people in the past year

Explore Data by:

  • Ages 13-17

    57%
    38%
  • Ages 18-24

    46%
    26%
  • Gay

    41%
    25%
  • Lesbian

    48%
    30%
  • Bisexual

    50%
    32%
  • Queer

    53%
    31%
  • Pansexual

    66%
    44%
  • Asexual/Aromantic

    47%
    30%
  • Heterosexual

    57%
    35%
  • Questioning

    59%
    32%
  • Cisgender boy/man

    35%
    20%
  • Cisgender girl/woman

    49%
    29%
  • Transgender girl/woman

    54%
    39%
  • Transgender boy/man

    75%
    52%
  • Nonbinary, agender, genderfluid, genderqueer

    63%
    40%
  • Questioning

    61%
    41%
  • Mestiza/o/e

    50%
    31%
  • White

    51%
    32%
  • Black or Afro-descendant

    66%
    46%
  • Indigenous

    56%
    36%
  • Mixed Race

    54%
    35%
  • Another Race

    57%
    37%
  • I don't know

    55%
    35%
  • Northwest

    52%
    30%
  • Northeast

    54%
    36%
  • West

    53%
    31%
  • East

    52%
    35%
  • North Central

    52%
    31%
  • South Central

    54%
    34%
  • Southwest

    49%
    31%
  • Southeast

    52%
    32%

* Not significant

LGBTQ+ young people ages 13-17 reported significantly higher suicide risk

With over half (57%) seriously considering suicide in the past year compared to 46% of their peers age 18-24, and 38% attempting suicide in the past year compared to 26% of their peers age 18-24

Motivations for suicide attempt

  • Family

  • School

  • Sexual Orientation

  • Gender Identity

  • Partner

  • Health

  • Bullying

  • Violence

  • Discrimination

What happened after suicide attempt

  • No one found out

  • Recieved therapy

  • Received help from close people

  • Received psychiatric treatment

  • The suicide attempt was ignored

Anxiety & Depression

58% of LGBTQ+ young people reported symptoms of depression

including 67% of trans and nonbinary young people and more than half of cisgender young people

53% of LGBTQ+ young people reported symptoms of anxiety

including 3 in 5 trans and nonbinary young people and almost half of cisgender young people

Anxiety & depression symptoms reported among LGBTQ+ young people

Explore Data by:

  • Ages 13-17

    60%
    54%
  • Ages 18-24

    54%
    52%
  • Gay

    47%
    44%
  • Lesbian

    55%
    51%
  • Bisexual

    55%
    52%
  • Queer

    57%
    59%
  • Pansexual

    68%
    61%
  • Asexual/Aromantic

    62%
    52%
  • Heterosexual

    59%
    51%
  • Questioning

    64%
    56%
  • Cisgender boy/man

    44%
    41%
  • Cisgender girl/woman

    55%
    52%
  • Transgender girl/woman

    59%
    51%
  • Transgender boy/man

    73%
    64%
  • Nonbinary, agender, genderfluid, genderqueer

    66%
    59%
  • Questioning

    65%
    60%
  • Mestiza/o/e

    54%
    52%
  • White

    56%
    54%
  • Black or Afro-descendant

    69%
    61%
  • Indigenous

    62%
    56%
  • Mixed race

    60%
    54%
  • Another race

    61%
    54%
  • I don't know

    62%
    53%

* Not significant

  • Northwest

    61%
    54%
  • Northeast

    60%
    52%
  • West

    58%
    55%
  • East

    58%
    54%
  • North Central

    55%
    52%
  • South Central

    56%
    53%
  • Southwest

    59%
    48%
  • Southeast

    55%
    53%

* Not significant

Self-Harm

75% of LGBTQ+ young people reported ever self-harming

including 85% of trans and nonbinary young people and 2 in 3 cisgender young people

Among LGBTQ+ young people who have self-harmed, 80% reported self-harming multiple times

Motivations for self-harm and desired outcome of self-harm

Motivations for self-harm

  • Due to how I was feeling emotionally

  • Problems with family

  • Problems at school

  • Problems with my partner(s)

  • Problems with my health

  • Economic problems

  • Due to being a victim of bullying

  • Due to being a victim of discrimination

  • Due to being a victim of violence

  • Another reason

Desired outcome of self-harm

  • Stop feeling bad

  • Feel better or calm myself

  • To punish myself

  • To end my life

  • Avoid doing anything else

  • Show someone how you felt

LGBTQ+ young people who reported ever having self-harmed

Explore Data by:

Self-harmed ever

  • Ages 13-17

  • Ages 18-24

Self-harmed ever

  • Gay

  • Lesbian

  • Bisexual

  • Queer

  • Pansexual

  • Asexual/Aromantic

  • Heterosexual

  • Questioning

Self-harmed ever

  • Cisgender boy/man

  • Cisgender girl/woman

  • Transgender girl/woman

  • Transgender boy/man

  • Nonbinary, agender, genderfluid, genderqueer

  • Questioning

Self-harmed ever

  • Mestiza/o/e

  • White

  • Black or Afro-descendant

  • Indigenous

  • Mixed race

  • Another race

  • I don't know

Self-harmed ever

  • Northwest

  • Northeast

  • West

  • East

  • North Central

  • South Central

  • Southwest

  • Southeast

Barriers to Care

Despite the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and suicide risk among LGBTQ+ young people, a majority could not access the mental health care they desired, due to lack of resources, stigma, or fears that care could involve conversion or change efforts.

Mental Health Care

91% of LGBTQ+ young people desired mental health care in the past

but of those, less than 3 in 5 received it

LGBTQ+ young people in México who searched for mental health care in the past year but could not get it, cited these top ten reasons

  • Financial problems

  • Asking for parental permission

  • Afraid to not be taken seriously

  • Afraid to talk about emotions

  • Transportation problems

  • Afraid it would not work

  • Not allowed by parents

  • Too young/minor

  • Did not want virtual care

  • Afraid of conversion therapy/change efforts

Among LGBTQ+ young people who searched for mental health care in the past year but did not get it, 1 in 5 reported being afraid of conversion therapy or change efforts

Conversion Therapy

Over 1 in 5 LGBTQ+ young people reported being threatened with or subjected to conversion therapy

including 29% of trans and nonbinary young people

LGBTQ+ young people who reported being threatened with or subjected to conversion therapy had nearly double the rate of a past-year suicide attempt

59% of LGBTQ+ young people reported experiencing a change attempt regarding their sexual or gender identity by someone in their life

Among LGBTQ+ young people in México:

21% reported being threatened or subjected to conversion therapy, including 29% of trans & nonbinary young people

  • 78% Never threatened with or subjected to conversion therapy
  • 12% Ever threatened with conversion therapy
  • 9% Ever subjected

LGBTQ+ young people who were threatened with or subjected to conversion therapy

Explore Data by:

  • Gay

  • Lesbian

  • Bisexual

  • Queer

  • Pansexual

  • Asexual/Aromantic

  • Heterosexual

  • Questioning

  • Cisgender boy/man

  • Cisgender girl/woman

  • Transgender girl/woman

  • Transgender boy/man

  • Nonbinary, agender, genderfluid, genderqueer

  • Questioning

  • Mestiza/o/e

  • White

  • Black or Afro-descendant

  • Indigenous

  • Mixed race

  • Another race

  • I don't know

  • Northwest

  • Northeast

  • West

  • East

  • North Central

  • South Central

  • Southwest

  • Southeast

LGBTQ+ young people who attempted suicide in the past year, comparison across those threatened with or subjected to conversion therapy

  • Ever subjected to conversion therapy

  • Ever threatened with conversion therapy

  • Never threatened with or subjected to conversion therapy

Risk Factors for LGBTQ+ Young People

LGBTQ+ young people who reported experiences of anti-LGBTQ+ victimization — including being physically threatened or harmed, discriminated against for being LGBTQ+, or being kicked out or forced to run away from their homes — reported significantly higher rates of past-year suicide attempts compared to those who did not report these experiences.

Threats and Experiences of Physical Harm

28% of LGBTQ+ young people reported ever being physically threatened or harmed due to their sexual orientation or gender identity

with nearly half of them having experienced threats or harms in the past year

12% of LGBTQ+ young people in México reported being physically threatened or harmed due to their sexual orientation in the past year

Nearly 1 in 5 trans and nonbinary young people reported being physically threatened or harmed due to their gender identity in the past year

Rates of LGBTQ+ young people who have been threatened or physically harmed in the past year

Explore Data by:

  • Ages 13-17

    13%
    15%
  • Ages 18-24

    10%
    13%

* Not significant

Due to their sexual orientation

  • Gay

  • Lesbian

  • Bisexual

  • Queer

  • Pansexual

  • Asexual/Aromantic

  • Heterosexual

  • Questioning

  • Cisgender boy/man

    15%
    0%
  • Cisgender girl/woman

    7%
    0%
  • Transgender girl/woman

    21%
    23%
  • Transgender boy/man

    18%
    26%
  • Nonbinary, agender, genderfluid, genderqueer

    14%
    12%
  • Questioning

    12%
    9%
  • Mestiza/o/e

    13%
    16%
  • White

    12%
    16%
  • Black or Afro-descendant

    10%
    21%
  • Indigenous

    13%
    17%
  • Mixed Race

    14%
    17%
  • Another Race

    17%
    21%
  • I don't know

    9%
    11%
  • Northwest

    10%
    13%
  • Northeast

    11%
    13%
  • West

    12%
    14%
  • East

    14%
    17%
  • North Central

    11%
    12%
  • South Central

    12%
    16%
  • Southwest

    14%
    14%
  • Southeast

    10%
    12%

* Not significant

Past-year suicide attempts among LGBTQ+ young people, comparison by past-year physical threats or harm

Suicide attempt rate in the past year

  • Experienced SOGI-based physical threat or harm in the past year

  • Did not experience SOGI-based physical threat or harm in the past year

Anti-LGBTQ+ Discrimination

Over half of LGBTQ+ young people reported ever feeling discriminated against due to their sexual orientation or gender identity

with 71% of them having experienced anti-LGBTQ+ discrimination in the past year

34% of LGBTQ+ young people in México reported being discriminated against due to their sexual orientation in the past year

Nearly half of trans and nonbinary young people in México reported being discriminated against due to their gender identity in the past year

Rates of LGBTQ+ young people who have felt discriminated against in the past year

Explore Data by:

  • Ages 13-17

    37%
    41%
  • Ages 18-24

    31%
    37%

Due to their sexual orientation

  • Gay

  • Lesbian

  • Bisexual

  • Queer

  • Pansexual

  • Asexual/Aromantic

  • Heterosexual

  • Questioning

  • Cisgender boy/man

    40%
    0%
  • Cisgender girl/woman

    28%
    0%
  • Transgender girl/woman

    37%
    49%
  • Transgender boy/man

    38%
    61%
  • Nonbinary, agender, genderfluid, genderqueer

    38%
    37%
  • Questioning

    36%
    25%
  • Mestiza/o/e

    35%
    40%
  • White

    36%
    40%
  • Black or Afro-descendant

    42%
    63%
  • Indigenous

    35%
    35%
  • Mixed Race

    36%
    42%
  • Another Race

    40%
    46%
  • I don't know

    32%
    37%

* Not significant

  • Northwest

    32%
    36%
  • Northeast

    32%
    37%
  • West

    39%
    47%
  • East

    37%
    39%
  • North Central

    36%
    33%
  • South Central

    34%
    41%
  • Southwest

    35%
    37%
  • Southeast

    32%
    40%

Reported location(s) and person(s) involved in anti-LGBTQ+ discrimination

Reported location(s) of experienced discrimination regarding LGBTQ+ identity

  • Home or family

  • Educational spaces

  • Public spaces

  • Transportation

  • Places of leisure

  • Public institutions

  • Workplaces

  • Health services

Reported person(s) who engaged in discrimination of LGBTQ+ identity

  • Person at home or family

  • Peers at school

  • Unknown person

  • A parent of a friend

  • Friend

  • Religious leaders

  • Professors or school staff

  • Partner

Past-year suicide attempts among LGBTQ+ young people, comparison by anti-LGBTQ+ discrimination

  • Felt discriminated against in the past year

  • Did not feel discriminated against in the past year

Homelessness, Running Away, or Being Kicked Out

14% of LGBTQ+ young people reported ever being homeless, ran away, or being kicked out by their parents/caregivers

including 17% of trans and nonbinary and 12% of cisgender young people

2 in 5 said they had to run away or were kicked out because of their LGBTQ+ identity

Rates of LGBTQ+ young people who ever had to run away or were kicked out

Explore Data by:

  • Ages 13-17

  • Ages 18-24

  • Cisgender boy/man

  • Cisgender girl/woman

  • Trans girl/woman

  • Trans boy/man

  • Nonbinary, agender, genderfluid, genderqueer

  • Questioning

  • Mestiza/o/e

  • White

  • Black or Afro-descendant

  • Indigenous

  • Mixed race

  • Another race

  • I don't know

Past-year suicide attempts among LGBTQ+ young people, comparison by ever having to run away or ever been kicked out by their parent(s) or caregiver(s)

  • Ever ran away or kicked out by caregivers

  • Never ran away or kicked out by caregivers

Past-year suicide attempts among LGBTQ+ young people, comparison by ever having to run away or ever been kicked out due to their LGBTQ+identity

  • Ever ran away or kicked out due to LGBTQ+ identity

  • Ran away or kicked out for another reason

Supporting LGBTQ+ Young People

Having access to LGBTQ+-affirming spaces — such as a home — as well as living in an accepting community is protective against depression, anxiety, and suicide. Additionally, having support from others as well as having positive feelings for one’s own LGBTQ+ identity were found to be protective factors.

Support for LGBTQ+ Identity

LGBTQ+ young people who have support for their sexual orientation report lower rates of depression and past-year suicide attempts

Trans and nonbinary young people who have gender identity support from friends, as well as those who have many people in their lives who respect their pronouns, report significantly lower rates of attempting suicide in the past year

LGBTQ+ young people in México who were fully accepted by their families when they shared their identity

  • 66% No
  • 34% Yes

Family reaction to coming out

  • Not out

  • Accepted, but neglected

  • Respected, accepted, and integrated

  • No support or acceptance

  • Defended LGBTQ+ people

  • Stopped communicating

  • Forced to see a provider, intent to change

  • Placed in therapy, intent to change

  • Harrassed to change

  • Other

Supportive people in the lives of LGBTQ+ young people

  • LGBTQ+ friend

    75%
    72%
  • Non-LGBTQ+ friend

    73%
    60%
  • Sibling

    42%
    31%
  • Another family member

    39%
    31%
  • Partner

    34%
    25%
  • Mother

    31%
    21%
  • Teacher/school counselor

    23%
    14%
  • Father

    17%
    12%
  • Friend's parent

    16%
    10%
  • Mental health provider

    14%
    10%
  • Colleague

    14%
    7%
  • Medical provider

    8%
    6%
  • Partner's parent

    5%
    4%
  • Guardian

    4%
    3%
  • Boss

    4%
    3%
  • Coach

    3%
    2%
  • Someone else

    3%
    2%

Gender Affirmation

How many people in your life respect your pronouns?

  • 11% None
  • 55% A few
  • 16% Many
  • 17% All

Past-year suicide attempts among trans and nonbinary young people, comparison by people in their lives who respect their pronouns

  • No one respects pronouns

  • A few respect pronouns

  • Many respect pronouns

  • All respect pronouns

Considering use of hormones/blockers and current use of hormones/blockers among trans and nonbinary young people

Considering use of hormones / blockers

  • 38% No
  • 66% Yes

Current use of hormones / blockers

  • 48% No, and I don't want to
  • 49% No, but I want to
  • 3% Yes

Past-year suicide attempts among trans and nonbinary young people, comparison by use of hormones/blockers

  • No, don't want hormones / blockers

  • No, but want hormones / blockers

  • Yes, using hormones / blockers

Affirming Communities & Spaces

40% of LGBTQ+ young people reported their community was somewhat or very accepting of LGBTQ+ people

while only 22% reported having access to an affirming home

LGBTQ+ young people who reported living in accepting communities, comparison by region

  • Northwest

  • Northeast

  • West

  • East

  • North Central

  • South Central

  • Southwest

  • Southeast

Suicide risk and mental health outcomes for LGBTQ+ young people, comparison by accepting communities

Explore Data by:

  • Community is somewhat or very unaccepting

  • Community is somewhat or very accepting

  • Community is somewhat or very unaccepting

  • Community is somewhat or very accepting

  • Community is somewhat or very unaccepting

  • Community is somewhat or very accepting

LGBTQ+ young people found affirming spaces at

  • School

  • Online

  • Home

  • Community

  • Work

  • Religious place

  • Somewhere else

  • Nowhere

Past-year suicide attempts among LGBTQ+ young people, comparison by LGBTQ+-affirming spaces

Explore Data by:

  • Non LGBTQ+-affirming

  • LGBTQ+-affirming

  • Non LGBTQ+-affirming

  • LGBTQ+-affirming

  • Non LGBTQ+-affirming

  • LGBTQ+-affirming

Positive Feelings about LGBTQ+ Identity

69% of LGBTQ+ young people report having positive feelings about their own sexual orientation or gender identity

including self-acceptance, happiness, and pride about who they are

LGBTQ+ young people who felt happy about their LGBTQ+ identity were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt

How do you feel about your sexual orientation and/or gender identity?

  • 3% I don't like who I am
  • 12% I don't fully accept myself
  • 16% I don't feel bad about who I am, however, I prefer that others do not know
  • 23% I accept who I am
  • 18% I am happy about who I am
  • 28% I am proud of who I am

Past-year suicide attempts among LGBTQ+ young people, comparison by feelings about one’s LGBTQ+ identity

Explore Data by:

  • I don't like who I am

  • I don't fully accept myself

  • I don't feel bad about who I am, however, I prefer that others do not know

  • I accept who I am

  • I am proud of who I am

  • I am happy about who I am

  • I don't like who I am

  • I don't fully accept myself

  • I don't feel bad about who I am, however, I prefer that others do not know

  • I accept who I am

  • I am proud of who I am

  • I am happy about who I am

  • I don't like who I am

  • I don't fully accept myself

  • I don't feel bad about who I am, however, I prefer that others do not know

  • I accept who I am

  • I am proud of who I am

  • I am happy about who I am

Methodology

The content and methodology for The Trevor Project’s 2023 México National Survey on the Mental Health of LGBTQ+ Young People were approved by an independent Institutional Review Board in the United States.

The content and methodology for the 2024 México National Survey on the Mental Health of LGBTQ+ Young People were approved by an independent Institutional Review Board in the United States.

A quantitative cross-sectional design was used to collect data through an online survey platform between June 29, 2023 and July 24, 2023. A sample of individuals aged 13 to 24 who resided in México was recruited via targeted ads on social media. No recruitment advertisements were posted onto The Trevor Project’s website or social media accounts. Respondents were defined as being LGBTQ+ if they identified with a sexual orientation other than heterosexual, a gender identity other than cisgender, or both. Recruitment was monitored to ensure adequate sample sizes with respect to age, region, gender identity, and sexual orientation. Qualified respondents completed a secure online questionnaire that included a maximum of 93 questions. Questions on considering and attempting suicide, as well as engaging in self-harm in the past year, were taken from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Johns et al., 2019; Johns et al., 2020). Questions regarding anxiety and depression were taken from the GAD-2 and PHQ-2, respectively (Lowe et al., 2005; Lowe et al., 2008). Questions surrounding motivations for suicide were taken from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (2021). Each question related to mental health and suicide was preceded by a message stating, “If at any time you need to talk to someone about your mental health or thoughts of suicide, please contact:” (“Si en algún momento necesitas hablar con alguien sobre tu salud mental o pensamientos suicidas, llama al:”), with a list of México-based, LGBTQ+ affirming resources, including The Trevor Project México. Yaaj Transformando tu Vida A.C. (Yaaj México) facilitated a youth advisory group which provided feedback on survey design, recruitment methodology, and recruitment advertisements. The Asociación por las Infancias Transgénero A.C. (Infancias Trans) provided their feedback and expertise on survey items and language related to trans and nonbinary young people.

There were 26,076 respondents who consented to start the survey, whom we identified as unique respondents based on reported age, place of residence, sex assigned at birth, gender, sexual orientation, and race/ethnicity. Of those, 972 were ineligible based on age (younger than 13 or older than 24 years) and country of residence (i.e., outside of México). An additional 6,148 respondents were pathed out, or excluded, for not meeting demographic requirements, such as not completing the demographic questions on sexual orientation and gender identity and not being LGBTQ+. An additional 5,805 were removed for either not making it to or passing the validity question, a question designed to ensure the authenticity of the respondents. Finally, 2,516 respondents were excluded for taking the survey multiple times. This resulted in an eligible sample of 10,635 LGBTQ+ young people ages 13-24 in México. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences between groups. Comparisons are statistically significant at p < 0.05 unless otherwise noted, which means there was a < 5% likelihood of the results occurring by chance.

This research uses LGBTQ+ as an umbrella term for all non-cisgender and non-heterosexual young people. “Trans and nonbinary” is used as an umbrella term for all non-cisgender young people. This includes trans and nonbinary young people as well as gender identities beyond the binary (e.g., genderqueer, agender, genderfluid, gender neutral, bigender).

Geographic regions are coded as follows: Northwest (Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Durango, Sinaloa, Sonora), Northeast (Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas), West (Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima, Michoacán), East (Puebla, Veracruz, Tlaxcala, Hidalgo), North Central (Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí, Zacatecas, Querétaro), South Central (Morelos, Estado de México, Ciudad de México), Southwest (Guerrero, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Región Sureste), Southeast (Tabasco, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán).

Race categories are coded as follows: Mestiza/o/e, White, Black/Afro-descendant [two categories], Indigenous, Mixed, Another race [includes Asian & Middle Eastern], and I don’t know.

Sample Breakdown of Respondents’ Demographics

Age categories

  • 60% Minor (Ages 13-17)
  • 40% Adult (Ages 18-24)

Race/ethnicity

  • 40% Mestiza/o/e
  • 18% White
  • 1% Black or Afro-descendant
  • 1% Indigenous
  • 7% Mixed race
  • 2% Another race
  • 31% I don't know

Sexual orientation

  • 39% Bisexual
  • 19% Pansexual
  • 14% Gay
  • 11% Lesbian
  • 8% Questioning
  • 6% Asexual/Aromantic
  • 3% Queer
  • 1% Heterosexual

Sexual orientation

  • 31% Monosexual
  • 69% Multisexual

By gender / gender identities

  • 38% Cisgender girl/woman
  • 21% Cisgender boy/man
  • 15% Nonbinary, agender, genderfluid, genderqueer
  • 9% Transgender boy/man
  • 3% Transgender girl/woman

Intersex

  • 82% No
  • 3% Yes
  • 15% I don't know

Houselessness

  • 86% No
  • 14% Yes

Food Insecurity

  • 53% No
  • 47% Yes

Regions

  • 16% Northwest
  • 12% Northeast
  • 12% West
  • 13% East
  • 11% North Central
  • 26% South Central
  • 4% Southwest
  • 6% Southeast

School

  • 13% Not in school
  • 87% In school

Grade Level

  • 19% Secondary
  • 51% Highschool
  • 30% University
  • 1% Postgrad
  • 1% Other

Employment

  • 74% Not working
  • 26% Working

Suggested citation:

Rocha-Sánchez, T.E., Blanco-Vera, A. I., Taylor, A.B., Hobaica, S., Lara, E.A., Kofke, L., Jarrett, B., Muñoz, G., & Nath, R. (2024). 2024 México national survey on the mental health of LGBTQ+ young people. West Hollywood, California: The Trevor Project. https://thetrevorproject.mx/encuesta/2024/en/

This research was led by The Trevor Project's Research Team in the United States, in collaboration with our academic partners Dr. Tania Esmeralda Rocha Sánchez and Aline Itzel Blanco Vera at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. The authors acknowledge the contributions of the following individuals: Dr. Jonah DeChants, Dr. Myeshia Price, Dr. Will Cole, Marissa Cohnen, Nolan Scott, Nathanio Strimpopulos, Zach Eisenstein, Nicholas Turton, Elliott Sylvester, Kevin Wong, Pablo Aguilera, Javier Hernández, Pamela Castillo, Gloria Ruiz, Steve O'Donoghue, Paul Pham, Megan Ford, Miranda Jaramillo, Nelson Fernandez, William Young, Yaaj Transformando tu Vida A.C. (Yaaj México), Asociación por las Infancias Transgénero A.C. (Infancias Trans), and The Trevor Project México. Special thanks are also extended to all the participants for their valuable time and insights.